1. Gwendolyn Seidman’s article, Is Facebook Really Turning Us into Narcissists?, isn’t a long one but does hit a few key topics on social media and self-esteem. She says that through studies, Facebook use in a consequence, not a cause of, narcissism. She brings up a study that a done by Gonzales and Hancock, that finds spending time on ones own Facebook page as opposed to sitting in front of a mirror, actually increases self-esteem. Another study shows that people who were asked to engage in self promotion on Facebook were more likely to express greater narcissism tendencies immediately after using Facebook. Seidman also references a study done by Ryan & Xenos that found Facebook use is high for extroverts as well as people with low self esteem. In conclusion, Facebook seems to be drawing narcissist to use it but actually creating narcissism.
Seidman, G (2014). Is Facebook Really Turning Us into Narcissists?
2. This article is a study not just of Facebook users but also the difference between make and female users. Both men and women spent an averages of around 2 hours per day with women spending a little bit more time than men. It focuses part of the article on users profile pictures and finds that that is where narcissism is at its highest. Women change their pictures more frequently than men and choose a picture based on physical attractiveness. Men choose the same way but change their profile pictures way less that women do. In the study, it explored empathy and found that women tend to feel distress and reflate to other users more than men do. In the end it finds that Facebook is not really used for self promotion, but rather a tool for staying connected.
Alloway T., Runac R., Qureshi M., Kemp G. (2014). Is Facebook Linked to Selfishness? Investigating the Relationships among Social Media Use, Empathy and Narcissism.
Scientific Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.4263/sn.2014.33020
3. In the article, Investigating the Relationships between Facebook and Social Connectedness, Self-efficacy and Self-esteem, it supports the findings in the previous articles. Such as, it agrees that by observing ones Facebook page, it has a tendency to raise self-esteem. Also, that people who suffer with low self-esteem find Facebook helpful in that they can avoid social anxiety or a face to face meeting. People on Facebook who fail to achieve the desired self-presentation can result in a decrease of self esteem. While people who already have a healthy sense of self esteem, Facebook is an extension of that. Their full lives spill over into Facebook. While people with a large amount of friends tend to have high self esteem, it shows that when a certain number of friends is surpassed, it can be a sign of low self esteem because their relationships tend to fell superficial. The article concluded that a high usage of Facebook increase social connectedness but not self-efficacy or self-esteem.
Whelan, B. (2014). Investigating the Relationships between Facebook and Social Connectedness, Self-efficacy and Self-esteem.
Department of Psychology, DBS School or Arts, Dublin
(While the citation or this article isn’t right, I further researched the references he used and found them to be accurate)